The following is a list of commonly used abbreviations within the CHP incident Web pages. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q. The aim of the game is to place a bet on either the Player or 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 or 9. Stands. 7. Stands. 8 or 9. Natural. No more cards are dealt to. If you bet on “2H ()" and the handicap is applied to the home team the bet will be winning if: the away team wins the match. - the away. ISABELLA BETTINGER TEMP
The pH was measured before immersion and 30 minutes; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 18, and 24 hours, and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days after immersion. Light-curing was performed for 40 seconds at a standard distance of 5 mm from the sample. The spectra were obtained before and after polymerization. Data were evaluated with the Opus 6. Teeth were randomly divided into four groups, and the experimental orthodontic adhesives were applied to the bracket base and placed on the tooth surface.
Brackets were placed using g of force, and the adhesive excess was removed. Adhesives were light-cured for 10 seconds for each side of the bracket. Statistical Analysis Sigma Plot The sample size was based on previous studies. The initial pH in artificial saliva was 7. After 28 days, Raman spectra of mineral deposits displayed peaks related to octacalcium phosphate OCP in and cm—1 peaks Figure 3.
Further, Zohar et al 13 have argued that recognizing the spectrum would contribute to improved classification, thus enabling a more precise description of endophenotype and biological markers that characterize these conditions, and that better classification could lead to more specific treatments.
A part from the possibility of an OC spectrum, there has been no consistent approach to categorizing impulsive and compulsive disorders. Alternative classification schemes have emphasized the relationship of a putative OC spectrum disorder to depression or other mood disorders, to the impulse-control disorders ICDs , or to the addictive disorders.
Recently, it has been suggested that at least some of the disorders included in the OC spectrum be placed within a new diagnostic category that combines behavioral and substance addictions. With this background in mind, this article will focus on the status of PG and CB. Are these disorders part of an OC spectrum as defined by Hollander and coworkers?
Are they more appropriately considered impulse control disorders ICDs or addictions? Are they related to one another? Compulsive buying CB has been described in the psychiatric nomenclature for nearly years. He was later quoted by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler 17 in his Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie: As a last category, Kraepelin mentions the buying maniacs oniomaniacs in whom even buying is compulsive and leads to senseless contraction of debts with continuous delay of payment until a catastrophe clears the situation a little - a little bit never altogether because they never admit all their debts.
The particular element is impulsiveness; they cannot help it, which sometimes even expresses itself in the fact that not withstanding a good school intelligence, the patients are absolutely incapable of thinking differently and conceiving the senseless consequences of their act, and the possibilities of not doing it.
They may have been influenced by French psychiatrist Jean Esquirol's 18 earlier concept of monomania, a term he used to describe otherwise normal persons who had some form of pathological preoccupation. CB attracted little attention until the late s and early s when consumer behavior researchers showed the disorder to be widespread 19 - 21 and descriptive studies appeared in the psychiatric literature. Further, the syndrome could not be attributed to mania or hypomania.
Other definitions have come from consumer behavior researchers or social psychologists. Dittmar 28 describes three cardinal features: irresistible impulse, loss of control, and carrying on despite adverse consequences. Some consumer behavior researchers consider CB part of a spectrum of aberrant consumer behavior, which includes pathological gambling, shoplifting, and credit abuse. Some consider CB to be related to the substance use disorders. The high and low prevalence estimates reflect different score thresholds set for CB.
More recently, Koran et al 36 used the CBS to identify compulsive buyers in a random telephone survey of US adults, and estimated the point prevalence at 5. Their finding suggests that the reported gender difference may be artifactual, in that women more readily acknowledging abnormal shopping behavior than men. The frequency of Axis II disorders in individuals with CB was assessed by Schlosser et al 25 using a selfreport instrument and a structured interview.
A distinctive and stereotyped clinical picture of the compulsive shopper has emerged. Black 39 has described four phases including: i anticipation; ii preparation; iii shopping; and iv spending. In the first phase, the person with CB becomes preoccupied either with having a specific item, or with the act of shopping. This is followed by a preparation phase in which plans are made. This phase is followed by the actual shopping experience, which many individuals with CB describe as intensely exciting.
This typically leads the individual to spend many hours each week engaged in these behaviors. CB behaviors occur all year, but can be more problematic during the Christmas season and other holidays, as well as around the birthdays of family members and friends. Compulsive buyers are mainly interested in consumer goods such as clothing, shoes, crafts, jewelry, gifts, makeup, and compact discs or DVDs 24 , 25 CB has little to do with intellect or educational level, and has been documented in mentally retarded persons.
In their model, compulsive shoppers combine high urge with low control. This view is consistent with clinical reports that compulsive buyers are preoccupied with shopping and spending and will try to resist their urges, often with little success. Lejoyeux et al 44 report that CB is associated with suicide attempts, although there are no reports of the disorder leading to completed suicide.
There is some evidence that CB runs in families and that within these families mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders exceed population rates. Black et al 45 used the family history method to assess first-degree relatives of 31 persons with CB.
Neurobiologic theories have centered on disturbed neurotransmission, particularly involving the serotonergic, dopaminergic, or opioid systems. Because CB occurs mainly in developed countries, cultural and social factors have been proposed as either causing or promoting the disorder. These may include the presence of a marketbased economy, the availability of goods, easily obtained credit, and disposable income.
Several case studies report the psychoanalytic treatment of CB. Improvement attributed to CBT was maintained during a 6-month follow-up. Benson 58 has developed a comprehensive self-help program that can be used by both individuals and groups. Treatment studies employing psychotropic medications have produced mixed results. Early reports suggested the benefit of antidepressants in treating CB 22 , 23 Black et al 46 reported the results of an open-label trial in which subjects given fluvoxamine showed benefit.
Two subsequent randomized controlled trials RCTs found fluvoxamine treatment to be no better than placebo. In a subsequent study, subjects received open-label citalopram; those who were considered responders were randomized to citalopram or placebo. In an identically designed discontinuation trial, escitalopram did not separate from placebo. Openlabel trials have generally produced positive results, but RCTs have not.
The disorder substantially impairs quality of life in addition to its association with comorbid psychiatric disorders, psychosocial impairment, and suicide. PG is defined as "persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior criterion A that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits The criteria focus on loss of control of gambling behavior; progressive deterioration of the disorder; and continuation despite negative consequences. The diagnosis can only be made when mania is ruled out Criterion B.
In an attempt to reconcile nomenclature and measurement methods, Shaffer and Hall 63 developed a generic multilevel classification scheme that is now widely accepted by gambling researchers. Rates of PG are higher in men, but the gender gap may be narrowing. Populations at risk include adults with mental health or substance-use disorders, persons who have been incarcerated, African-Americans, and persons with low socioeconomic status.
Sensation-seekers tend to be younger, and prefer the excitement of card games or table games that involve active input. They have identified three subgroups: a behaviorally-conditioned gamblers; b emotionally vulnerable gamblers; and c antisocial, impulsive gamblers. Behaviorally conditioned gamblers have no specific predisposing psychopathology, but make bad judgments regarding gambling.
Emotionally vulnerable gamblers suffer premorbid depression or anxiety, and have a history of poor coping. Finally, antisocial, impulsive gamblers are highly disturbed and have features of antisocial personality disorder and impulsivity that suggest neurobiological dysfunction. Psychiatric comorbidity is the rule, not the exception, in persons with PG. Both community and clinic-based studies suggest that substance use disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders are highly prevalent in persons with PG.
Rates of other impulse-control disorders ICDs appear higher in persons with pathological gambling than in the general population. Subjects with one ICD appear more likely to have another, suggesting considerable overlap among them. These views were influenced by the pioneering observations of Custer 84 who described PG as a progressive, multistage illness that begins with a winning phase, followed in turn by a losing phase, and a desperation phase.
The final phase, giving up, represented feelings of hopelessness. Custer's four phases of PG have gained wide acceptance despite the absence of empirical data. Recent work is leading to a reconsideration of these views. LaPlante et al 86 reviewed five studies 87 - 91 that met their criteria of reporting longitudinal data pertaining to gambling that did not involve a treatment sample. Those who were level 0 to 1 gamblers at baseline were unlikely to progress to a higher ie, more severe level of gambling behavior, and with one exception, 91 the studies suggested that few level 2 gamblers improved by moving to level 1.
La Plante et al 86 conclude that these studies challenge the notion that PG is intractable, and suggest that many gamblers spontaneously improve, as do many substance addicted persons. The findings suggest that those who do not gamble or gamble without problems tend to remain problemfree; those with disordered gambling move from one level to another, though the general direction is toward improved classification. Family history data suggests that PG, mood disorders, and substance-use disorders are more prevalent among the relatives of persons with PG than in the general population.
Few persons with PG seek treatment, 96 and until recently the treatment mainstay appeared to be participation in Gamblers Anonymous GA , a step program patterned after Alcoholics Anonymous.
ETHEREAL BREAST PLATE
If you see a team listed at There are times when the odds for NFL games will be listed as a whole number without a decimal point. If the final score of the game is the same as the whole number, it's called a push or a tie. When this happens you neither win nor lose and you get your money back. In the majority of NFL games, a decimal point is included to make sure you either win or lose the bet. While it can vary according to what sportsbook you are using, bettors should be aware that for every dollar you bet the winning payout is usually around 90 cents.
In betting parlance, this is referred to as the "vig'' or "juice,'' which is the fee charged for you making a straight points spread wager. An example of this can be found on NFL betting charts where you might see a number listed next to the spread. Once you understand how betting works in terms of the points spread, there are several things to keep your eye on as you get ready to make a wager. For openers, if you have a particularly strong feeling about which way the game might go, it's a good idea to compare the points spreads on various sporting apps.
Your writing, at its best Compose bold, clear, mistake-free, writing with Grammarly's AI-powered writing assistant Start writing What does the acronym NB stand for? Nota bene is a Latin phrase — also spelled N. The usual medieval equivalents are anagrams from the four letters in the word nota, or the abbreviation DM from dignum memoria meaning worth remembering.
This prefix code is commonly used in bibliographies or essays. The abbreviation NB cna also be used to mean nonbinary, which is a way that a person who does nont identify with the male or female gender might refer to themselves. These people often use the pronouns they and them rather than he, she, him, or her.
What does nb stand for in betting what does 4/5 forex 20 pips a day strategy and tacticsWhat is a Round Robin in Sports Betting?
Fixed Odds Fixed Odds bets mean that the odds are fixed at the price displayed when you place your bet.
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|What does nb stand for in betting what does 4/5||The bet is only valid if both players participate in the game from the first minute, otherwise it will be declared void. Trifecta A Trifecta requires you to select the runners that will finish first, second and third in a race. Subtracting the spread to the corners of the away team the latter will perform more corners than the home team. Alternative classification schemes have emphasized the relationship of a putative OC spectrum disorder to depression or other mood disorders, to the impulse-control disorders ICDsor to the addictive disorders. If the match is not resumed or not completed within the mentioned time frame, all related bets will be deemed void. This phase is followed by the actual shopping experience, which many individuals with CB describe as intensely exciting. Likewise, other impulse control disorders are common among compulsive shoppers.|